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of the k'atsina are called G'uiraina tcaian~ Children amiiate with the kiva of the father.
There is a headman for each estufa (kiva, or k'a'atc).~ He is appointed by the cacique and serves for life. His duties are in general the administration of the unit of the kachina organization belonging to his estufa; specifically, he is the custodian of the masks, keeping them safely secured between ceremonies; he takes them out and paints them for dances and feeds them and offers them cigarettes; he summons his men for ceremonies and instructs them in matters of preparation, etc.
Initiation of children into the AacA~~ organization.-The war chief keeps track of thé children to be initiated. Initiations are held at intervals of about five or six years. In the old days initiations were held at the winter solstice; now they are held during the summer. Formerly, children were initiated at ages ranging from 9 to 12 (approximately) now, however, the initiation is usually postponed until the children corne back from the schools to stay in the village. When the war chief thinks the time has corne for another initiation he confers with the cacique, who sets a date. Then the war chief goes through the streets (four days before the initiation is to take place) announcing the forthcoming event.
On the fourth day before the ceremony the father of a child to be initiated (or the child's maternai uncle, if the father be dead) looks about for some one to act as his child's sponsor during the initiation. He always chooses a good friend, and usually a clansman. The father makes four waBani (feather bunches, q. v.) each one containing a wi~icBi (corn-husk cigarette which has been lighted and extinguished) and wraps them in a com husk. This package he carries to the man he has chosen for sponsor and hands it to him, saying "Dium"" (brother). The recipient replies, "Diumu." The father prays, asking his friend to look out for his child during the initiation, and asks the spirits to grant him a long, useful, and happy life.~ In the Rio Grande villages there are two complementary secret societies, the Koshare and the Quirena. They are definitely organized, have a headman, mew members are secretly initiated, etc. They assist at ceremonies. At Acoma the Koshare Society is found, but the Quirena exîsts in qnite a different form. There, instead of being a smaU secret society with spécial fonctions, the Qnirena (called Guiraina at Acoma) is simply the aggregate of all individuals who have been initiated into the secrets of the k'atsina. The features which characterize the Quirena in the east, such as special ceremonial functions, a distinctive costume, a mythological residence, etc., are not found at Acoma. Acoma, it seems, bas worked out a compromise between east and west. It has the names "Koshare" and "Quirena," and the form and functions of the Koshare Society, whieh are eastem features. Then it bas the idea of a tribal societywhose functions are closely associatedwith kachina impersonation (viz, the G'uiraina tcaiani), which is a Zoni characteristie. The absence of the moiety principle, too, is a western feature rather than an eastem one. One might suppose a priori that such a situation would be found at Acoma, since its geographic position is about midway between Zuni and the pueblos of the Rio Grande.
M Another informant stated that there were two headmen. The man who told me that there was one headman said that there was an assistant.
M The man who aets as sponsor is called neyawatnn'itu; the children to be whipped are called naiyamawatna tsiwatcomasa.