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                  Titre : Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution

                  Auteur : Bureau of American ethnology (Washington, D.C.)

                  Éditeur : Government printing office (Washington)

                  Date d'édition : 1895-1964

                  Contributeur : Powell, John Wesley (1834-1902). Directeur de publication

                  Type : texte,publication en série imprimée

                  Langue : Anglais

                  Format : application/pdf

                  Droits : domaine public

                  Identifiant : ark:/12148/cb37575968z/date

                  Identifiant : ISSN 0097269X

                  Source : Bibliothèque nationale de France

                  Relation : http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb37575968z

                  Description : Périodicité : Annuel

                  Description : Etat de collection : n. 1 (1879)-n. 48 (1931)

                  Provenance : bnf.fr

                  Date de mise en ligne : 15/10/2007

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                  First issue for the year 1929 Previous issue 1929 (N47)-1930. Next issue Last issue for the year 1929
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                  Title : Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution

                  Author : Bureau of American ethnology (Washington, D.C.)

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                  w!HTE] CEREMONIES AND CEREMONIALISM 71

                  of the k'atsina are called G'uiraina tcaian~ Children amiiate with
                  the kiva of the father.

                  There is a headman for each estufa (kiva, or k'a'atc).~ He is
                  appointed by the cacique and serves for life. His duties are in gen-
                  eral the administration of the unit of the kachina organization be-
                  longing to his estufa; specifically, he is the custodian of the masks,
                  keeping them safely secured between ceremonies; he takes them out
                  and paints them for dances and feeds them and offers them cigarettes;
                  he summons his men for ceremonies and instructs them in matters
                  of preparation, etc.

                  Initiation of children into the AacA~~ organization.-The war chief
                  keeps track of thé children to be initiated. Initiations are held at
                  intervals of about five or six years. In the old days initiations were
                  held at the winter solstice; now they are held during the summer.
                  Formerly, children were initiated at ages ranging from 9 to 12 (ap-
                  proximately) now, however, the initiation is usually postponed until
                  the children corne back from the schools to stay in the village.
                  When the war chief thinks the time has corne for another initiation
                  he confers with the cacique, who sets a date. Then the war chief
                  goes through the streets (four days before the initiation is to take
                  place) announcing the forthcoming event.

                  On the fourth day before the ceremony the father of a child to be
                  initiated (or the child's maternai uncle, if the father be dead) looks
                  about for some one to act as his child's sponsor during the initiation.
                  He always chooses a good friend, and usually a clansman. The
                  father makes four waBani (feather bunches, q. v.) each one contain-
                  ing a wi~icBi (corn-husk cigarette which has been lighted and extin-
                  guished) and wraps them in a com husk. This package he carries
                  to the man he has chosen for sponsor and hands it to him, saying
                  "Dium"" (brother). The recipient replies, "Diumu." The father
                  prays, asking his friend to look out for his child during the initiation,
                  and asks the spirits to grant him a long, useful, and happy life.~
                  In the Rio Grande villages there are two complementary secret societies, the Koshare and the Quirena.
                  They are definitely organized, have a headman, mew members are secretly initiated, etc. They assist at
                  ceremonies. At Acoma the Koshare Society is found, but the Quirena exîsts in qnite a different form.
                  There, instead of being a smaU secret society with spécial fonctions, the Qnirena (called Guiraina at Acoma)
                  is simply the aggregate of all individuals who have been initiated into the secrets of the k'atsina. The
                  features which characterize the Quirena in the east, such as special ceremonial functions, a distinctive
                  costume, a mythological residence, etc., are not found at Acoma. Acoma, it seems, bas worked out a
                  compromise between east and west. It has the names "Koshare" and "Quirena," and the form and
                  functions of the Koshare Society, whieh are eastem features. Then it bas the idea of a tribal societywhose
                  functions are closely associatedwith kachina impersonation (viz, the G'uiraina tcaiani), which is a Zoni
                  characteristie. The absence of the moiety principle, too, is a western feature rather than an eastem one.
                  One might suppose a priori that such a situation would be found at Acoma, since its geographic position
                  is about midway between Zuni and the pueblos of the Rio Grande.

                  M Another informant stated that there were two headmen. The man who told me that there was one
                  headman said that there was an assistant.

                  M The man who aets as sponsor is called neyawatnn'itu; the children to be whipped are called naiyama-
                  watna tsiwatcomasa.


                  Source: gallica.bnf.fr / Bibliothèque nationale de France

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