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Titre : Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution

Auteur : Bureau of American ethnology (Washington, D.C.)

Éditeur : Government printing office (Washington)

Date d'édition : 1929

Contributeur : Powell, John Wesley (1834-1902). Directeur de publication

Type : texte

Type : publication en série imprimée

Langue : anglais

Format : application/pdf

Description : 1929 (N47)-1930.

Description : Note : Index.

Droits : domaine public

Identifiant : ark:/12148/bpt6k27660k

Source : Bibliothèque nationale de France

Notice du catalogue : http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb37575968z

Notice du catalogue : http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb37575968z/date

Provenance : Bibliothèque nationale de France

Date de mise en ligne : 15/10/2007

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ineluded in the sacred paraphernalia of the priests-pots of sacred black paint, round stones, "thunder stones," obsidian knives, and other objects, ail of which were brought from the lower world. The e~to'we themselves are each in two parts, Ea/etow'e, water fetish, and tcu~e~to'we, corn fetish. The rain-making function is decidedly the more important.

In addition to the objects on the altar of their retreat, the chief priesthood is said to maintain a permanent altar in the fourth underground room of their house. In addition to the usual obj ects on priestly altars, this altar contains two columns of rock, one of crystal and one of turquoise, a heart-shaped rock which is "the heart of the world," with arteries reaching to the four cardinal points, and various prayer sticks, including two, male and female, which are "the life of the people." Ail objects on the altar, including thé e~to'we, are said to be petrified. This altar is the center of the world, the spot beneath the heart of Eânastep'a when he stretched out his arms. Only the high priest himself has access to this chamber.44

The priests, as such, hold no public ceremonies, although their presence is necessary at many ceremonies of other groups. Their own ceremonies for the Uwanami are held in secret in the houses where their fetishes are kept.

At the winter solstice the priesthoods observe a one-night retreat. Following the planting of the prayer sticks to the sun is a taboo period of 10 days, during which many rites are celebrated. On the fifth or sixth night (depending on the phase of the moon) each priesthood goes into retreat in its ceremonial house. During the day the priests make prayer sticks for the Uwanami of the different directions. Before sunset these are deposited at a distant spring. When the messengers return from the spring thé various sacred objects are removed from their jars and placed on a meal painting, along with ears of corn, clay models of peach trees, animals, even money, upon which the blessing of increase is invoked. All night prayers are chanted and songs sung. The ceremony ends at sunrise. This ceremony is repeated by all the priests in their respective houses at the two full moons following.

The great ceremonies of the priests occur after the summer solstice. At this time rain is urgently needed for the young corn plants just rising out of the ground. Thé rainy season starts about July 1. Should the rains be delayed beyond that date great hardship is suffered.

Four days following the summer planting of prayer sticks tbe priesthoods begin their great series of summer retreats which last from "Information concerning this altar was secured from a fairly reliable informant who gained access to it and made a very remarkable painting of it. The author does not consider the information quite beyond question, but gives it for what it may be worth.