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Titre : Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution

Auteur : Bureau of American ethnology (Washington, D.C.)

Éditeur : Government printing office (Washington)

Date d'édition : 1929

Contributeur : Powell, John Wesley (1834-1902). Directeur de publication

Type : texte

Type : publication en série imprimée

Langue : anglais

Format : application/pdf

Description : 1929 (N47)-1930.

Description : Note : Index.

Droits : domaine public

Identifiant : ark:/12148/bpt6k27660k

Source : Bibliothèque nationale de France

Relation : http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb37575968z

Relation : http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb37575968z/date

Provenance : Bibliothèque nationale de France

Date de mise en ligne : 15/10/2007

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clans of the bride and groom, weddings are one of the most frequent topics of conversation.

The économie unit is the household, whose nature and methods of function illustrate admirably certain very fundamental Zuni attitudes. The household is'a group of variable composition, consisting theoretically of a maternai family; that is, a woman and her husband, her daughters with their husbands and children. To this permanent population is added a fluctuating group of miscellaneous male relatives of the maternai line-the unmarried, widowed, divorced, and those rendered homeless by passing domestic storms. This group occupies a single house consisting of several connecting rooms. There is a single kitchen drawing upon a common storehouse. The bousehold owns certain cultivated fields which can not be alienated. In addition, the various male members individually own certain fieldsgenerally fields recently brought under cultivation-which remain their own after they have severed connection with the household. However, ail fields, whether collectively or individually owned, are cultivated by the cooperative labor of the entire male population of the household. The products go into thé common storeroom to become thé collective property of the women of the household. The women draw on thé common stores for daily food and trade thé surplus for other commodities. Sheep are owned individually by men but are herded cooperatively by groups of male kindred. When the profits of the shearing are divided a man is expected out of these to provide clothing for himself, his wife and children, including children by previous marriages, and his mother and unmarried sisters, in case they are not otherwise provided for.

Personal relations within the household are characterized by the same lack of individual authority and responsibility that marks the économie arrangements. The household has no authoritative head to enforce any kind of discipline. There is no final arbiter in disputes no open conflict. Ordinarily thé female contingent of blood relatives presents a united front. A man finding himself out of harmony with the group may withdraw quietly whenever he chooses and ally himself with another group. With his departure obligations cease, and his successor fathers his children. Diffusion of authority and responsibility is especially marked in the treatment of children. The tribe is divided into 13 matrilineal exogamous clans, varying greatly in size from the Yellowwood, consisting of two male members, and which will therefore become extinct with the present generation, to the large so-called Dogwood (PFtcikwe) clan, which comprises several hundreds of individuals. The kinship system follows, in the main, the Crow multiple clan system, ail members of one's own clan being designated by classificatory terms. There are different terms for classificatory relatives of the father's clan. Adoption is frequent,