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Titre : Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution

Auteur : Bureau of American ethnology (Washington, D.C.)

Éditeur : Government printing office (Washington)

Date d'édition : 1929

Contributeur : Powell, John Wesley (1834-1902). Directeur de publication

Type : texte

Type : publication en série imprimée

Langue : anglais

Format : application/pdf

Description : 1929 (N47)-1930.

Description : Note : Index.

Droits : domaine public

Identifiant : ark:/12148/bpt6k27660k

Source : Bibliothèque nationale de France

Notice du catalogue : http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb37575968z

Notice du catalogue : http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb37575968z/date

Provenance : Bibliothèque nationale de France

Date de mise en ligne : 15/10/2007

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It was decided to send Don Vicente Zaldivar, the brother of Don Juan, to punish the Acomas. Not only was revenge in order but other pueblos must not see Acoma remain victorious. So on the 21st of January, 1599, Captain Vicente de Zaldivar arrived at Acoma with 70 men, including Villagrâ. It is said that Zutucapan was very defiant. Other leaders, especially one Chumpo, urged the removal of women and children from the mesa before any fighting began. Zutucapan and his followers were very confident, however, and everyone remained in the pueblo.

The fight began. Zaldivar sent most of his men to engage the Indians at the trail, while 12 men stealthily ascended the south mesa, unnoticed by the Indians, and gained the summit. The fight lasted two or three days. According to Villagrâ the siege must have resembled the siege of Troy; great struggles of great heroes rocked the mesa. As a matter of fact, the Spaniards lost only one man. When they finally gained the village they killed many Indians and burned their houses. Chumpo, he who had counseled caution, was allowed to settle on the plain below with his followers.~

It is said that the Acomas saw Santiago hovering over the Spaniards on a white horse during the fight. The Spaniards were as ready to believe this as were the Indians.13

The Acoma people were soon back on the top of their mesa. And they were far from friendly. Father Zârate Salmeron is said to have "pacined" the Acomas about 1620. In his Relaci6n he states that one Capt. Gerônimo Marquez had told him that he had once seen on the walls of an estufa at Acoma some pictures of Aztecs. The Acomas said that these people had come from the west some years previous; and since they had never seen any people like them, they had painted their likeness on the walls of their estufa. 'When they left, the Aztecs went toward the Rio Grande pueblos. Father Zârate made inquiry at some of the Rio Grande pueblos; and although he was frequently told about these strangers, he never succeeded in absolutely identifying them as people from Mexico.~

In 1629 (approximately) Father Juan Ramirez went to Acoma. He chose this pueblo because he had heard that they were the most rebellious of all the tribes. Upon (or shortly after) his arrivai he restored a child, who had just expired, with holy water and approIt is said that 600 accompanied Chumpo. Thé total population was estimated at 6,000, which is at least four times too large, I believe.

In a letter to the viceroy, thé Count of Monterey, dated Mar. 2, 1599, Onate wrote as Miows: because my maese de campo was not as cautious as he should have been, they killed him with 12 companions in a great pueblo and fortress called Acoma, which must contain about 3,000 Indians. As punishment for its crime and its treason against its majesty to whom it bas already rendered submission by a public instrument (t), and as a warning to the rest (of the pueblos), 1 razed it and burned it completely." This is without doubt a great exaggeration, 1 believe. (See Bolton, Spanish Exploration in the Southwest, p. 218.)

li See his Re]aciën, translated in Land of Sunshine, vol. xn.