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                  Titre : Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution

                  Auteur : Bureau of American ethnology (Washington, D.C.)

                  Éditeur : Government printing office (Washington)

                  Date d'édition : 1895-1964

                  Contributeur : Powell, John Wesley (1834-1902). Directeur de publication

                  Type : texte,publication en série imprimée

                  Langue : Anglais

                  Format : application/pdf

                  Droits : domaine public

                  Identifiant : ark:/12148/cb37575968z/date

                  Identifiant : ISSN 0097269X

                  Source : Bibliothèque nationale de France

                  Relation : http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb37575968z

                  Description : Périodicité : Annuel

                  Description : Etat de collection : n. 1 (1879)-n. 48 (1931)

                  Provenance : bnf.fr

                  Date de mise en ligne : 15/10/2007

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                  First issue for the year 1929 Previous issue 1929 (N47)-1930. Next issue Last issue for the year 1929
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                  Title : Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution

                  Author : Bureau of American ethnology (Washington, D.C.)

                  Url of the page : http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k27660k/f37.image


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                  -mnTE] HISTORICAL SKETCH OF ACOMA 27

                  It was decided to send Don Vicente Zaldivar, the brother of Don
                  Juan, to punish the Acomas. Not only was revenge in order but
                  other pueblos must not see Acoma remain victorious. So on the
                  21st of January, 1599, Captain Vicente de Zaldivar arrived at Acoma
                  with 70 men, including Villagrâ. It is said that Zutucapan was very
                  defiant. Other leaders, especially one Chumpo, urged the removal
                  of women and children from the mesa before any fighting began.
                  Zutucapan and his followers were very confident, however, and
                  everyone remained in the pueblo.

                  The fight began. Zaldivar sent most of his men to engage the
                  Indians at the trail, while 12 men stealthily ascended the south mesa,
                  unnoticed by the Indians, and gained the summit. The fight lasted
                  two or three days. According to Villagrâ the siege must have resem-
                  bled the siege of Troy; great struggles of great heroes rocked the
                  mesa. As a matter of fact, the Spaniards lost only one man. When
                  they finally gained the village they killed many Indians and burned
                  their houses. Chumpo, he who had counseled caution, was allowed
                  to settle on the plain below with his followers.~

                  It is said that the Acomas saw Santiago hovering over the Span-
                  iards on a white horse during the fight. The Spaniards were as
                  ready to believe this as were the Indians.13

                  The Acoma people were soon back on the top of their mesa. And
                  they were far from friendly. Father Zârate Salmeron is said to have
                  "pacined" the Acomas about 1620. In his Relaci6n he states that
                  one Capt. Gerônimo Marquez had told him that he had once seen
                  on the walls of an estufa at Acoma some pictures of Aztecs. The
                  Acomas said that these people had come from the west some years
                  previous; and since they had never seen any people like them, they
                  had painted their likeness on the walls of their estufa. 'When they
                  left, the Aztecs went toward the Rio Grande pueblos. Father Zârate
                  made inquiry at some of the Rio Grande pueblos; and although he
                  was frequently told about these strangers, he never succeeded in
                  absolutely identifying them as people from Mexico.~

                  In 1629 (approximately) Father Juan Ramirez went to Acoma.
                  He chose this pueblo because he had heard that they were the most
                  rebellious of all the tribes. Upon (or shortly after) his arrivai he
                  restored a child, who had just expired, with holy water and appro-
                  It is said that 600 accompanied Chumpo. Thé total population was estimated at 6,000, which is at
                  least four times too large, I believe.

                  In a letter to the viceroy, thé Count of Monterey, dated Mar. 2, 1599, Onate wrote as Miows:
                  because my maese de campo was not as cautious as he should have been, they killed him with 12
                  companions in a great pueblo and fortress called Acoma, which must contain about 3,000 Indians. As
                  punishment for its crime and its treason against its majesty to whom it bas already rendered submission
                  by a public instrument (t), and as a warning to the rest (of the pueblos), 1 razed it and burned it com-
                  pletely." This is without doubt a great exaggeration, 1 believe. (See Bolton, Spanish Exploration in
                  the Southwest, p. 218.)

                  li See his Re]aciën, translated in Land of Sunshine, vol. xn.


                  Source: gallica.bnf.fr / Bibliothèque nationale de France

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