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                  Titre : Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution

                  Auteur : Bureau of American ethnology (Washington, D.C.)

                  Éditeur : Government printing office (Washington)

                  Date d'édition : 1895-1964

                  Contributeur : Powell, John Wesley (1834-1902). Directeur de publication

                  Type : texte,publication en série imprimée

                  Langue : Anglais

                  Format : application/pdf

                  Identifiant : ark:/12148/cb37575968z/date

                  Identifiant : ISSN 0097269X

                  Source : Bibliothèque nationale de France

                  Relation : http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb37575968z

                  Description : Périodicité : Annuel

                  Description : Etat de collection : n. 1 (1879)-n. 48 (1931)

                  Provenance : bnf.fr

                  Date de mise en ligne : 15/10/2007

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                  First issue for the year 1903 Previous issue 1903 (N25)-1904. Next issue Last issue for the year 1903
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                  Title : Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution

                  Author : Bureau of American ethnology (Washington, D.C.)

                  Url of the page : http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k276372/f94.image


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                  64: THE ABORIGINES OF PORTO RICO t;ETH.ANN.25
                  t T~ ~l- .C f~ T- ~1-.

                  older writings. Doctor Cronau figures two Lucayan clay pipe bowls
                  of a bird form identical with certain mound pipes that are now in the
                  Nassau library, New Providence island, Bahamas. As similar forms
                  have not been recorded from the more southerly West Indies and lit-
                  tle is known of the history of those from Bahama, it is desirable to
                  détermine their antiquity and to know definitely the locality in which
                  they were found.

                  In aboriginal secular smoking it was customary to roll the tobacco

                  leaf in much the same way that cigars are now made, and a cigar is
                  even now called a "tobacco" in the West Indies. The companions
                  of Columbus noticed the Cuban Indians smoking tobacco in this form.
                  Gômara says that the islanders ate tobacco, but it is more probable
                  that theysimply chewed the herb for ils narcotic influences, the object
                  being to obtain psycho-religious suggestions.

                  A beverage made from the root of the manioc was used in dances,

                  · many of which closed with a general debauch in which all the partici-
                  pants became intoxicated. There is every reason to suppose that this
                  drink was prepared in the same way as the intoxicant employed by
                  the Guiana Indians described by im Thurn.

                  RITES AND CEREMONIES

                  For our knowledge of thé ceremonies of -the prehistoric Porto

                  Ricans we must rely wholly on early authors whose accounts relate
                  to the Indians of Haiti rather than to those of Porto Rico.. As all
                  agree that there was close similarity in the inhabitants of the two
                  islands we are justified in the belief that the descriptions given hold
                  good also for the Indians of Borinquen, or Porto Rico. There is,
                  besides, a certain parallelism in the ceremonies of all primitive peo-
                  ples, a knowledge of which may be used in interpreting the ritual
                  of any individual tribe.

                  The most important communal ceremonies among the Haitians were

                  performed for rain and the growth of the crops, but there were cere-
                  monies for success in war and for curing the sick, commemoration
                  rites over the dead, initiation rites, and various others. In some
                  instances these rites took the form of elaborate dances, accompanied
                  by prayers, songs, and other performances. Dramatization played an
                  important part in all ceremonies and was especially prominent in war
                  dances, in which were represented the motive of the war, the depar-
                  ture of the warriors, ambuscades, surprise of the enemy, combat, cele-
                  bration of the victory, and return of the war party, accompanied with
                  mortuary rites of a commemorative nature, for the fallen (plate ix).
                  These dramatizations were called by the same name as other cere-
                  monial dances celebrated on important occasions. A dance, or <M'6~o,
                  accompanied the birth of a child and the death of a cacique. In
                  medicinal practice it was regarded as a means of augmenting the


                  Source: gallica.bnf.fr / Bibliothèque nationale de France

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